Confined Space

Confined Space

What is confined space?

Any enclosure having a limited means of entry & exit and it is not designed for continuous occupancy.
There will be a presence of any hazardous substances such as flammable and toxic gases, oxygen deficiency, hot or humid atmosphere or any combination of it.
Examples: Process vessels, Tanks, Bins, Stacks, Large pipe, Duct, Pits & Trench etc. Any excavation with depth more than 1.2 meter.

What are the Confined Space Hazards? A confined space may have one or combination of the following hazards:

Oxygen deficiency
Presence of flammable, combustible or pyrophoric materials (HC, Sludge etc.)
Presence of toxic gases, corrosive or hazardous materials (H2S, Co, NH3 etc.)
Poor illumination, Ventilation & Communication.
High temperature and humidity.
Limited entry & exit / Restricted access.
Restricted movement inside.
Falling / Tripping hazards
Presence of reactive or self-igniting material.
Hazard due to electricity or moving machinery.
Hazard due to pressurized fluid.
Hazard due to nature of work carried out inside confined space.

What is the procedure for entering a confined space hazards? OR What are the important PRECAUTIONS for confined space? 

Procedure for entering confined space:
1. Permit must be procured form operations, making sure of the following.
a. Complete isolation of the space to be entered.
b. Draining, depressurization and purging or cleaning should be performed.
c. Gas test should be conducted to ensure no hazardous atmosphere is present.
d. Space ventilation.
2. A Pre task meeting must be conducted with all authorized entrants prior to entering confined space.
3. The attendant (Stand by man) shall be assigned at the entrance to maintain communication with employees working inside to ensure their safety. A log book shall be maintained at the entrance to keep track of the people inside the space.
4. Safety attendant must be trained and authorized to use gas testing equipment.
5. Entrants must wear body harness, and if necessary a life line be attached to the harness to avoid entry-rescue.
6. Lighting should be provided, if necessary a maximum of 24 volts, lighting should be used attached a GFCI.
7. Only intrinsically safe or explosion-proof equipment shall be used inside.
8. Depending on the situation, emergency rescue team may be put on standby.
9. If an emergency occurs within the confined space, the standby person must not enter it until rescue team arrived.
10. Barricade the area with warning sign board.

What you know about working in a confined space entry? OR Explain about confined space entry? 
Any enclosure having a limited means of entry & exit and it is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
Before entering in the confined space, must need to obtained a confined space entry work permit, make sure that all required isolation being done.
Frequently gas test is to be carried out to confirm that area is free of toxic gas or flammable atmosphere.
If the area is contaminated or it has oxygen deficiency the provided BA sets or air line respiratory system.
Conduct pre-task meeting for the employees who will be entering inside the confined area and get there signature to conform that they are aware of the hazards and safety measures.
The attendant (Stand by man) to assigned at the entrance. A log book shall be maintained at the entrance to keep track of the people inside the space. The attendant shall not be assigned to other duties. If an emergency occurs within the confined space, the standby person must not enter it until rescue team arrived.
The entering people should use body harness with lifeline for the emergency rescue purpose.
Any required electrical lighting or tools should not exceed more than 24 volts and attached with GFCI / ELCB. It should be intrinsically safe or explosive proof.
Barricade the area with warning sign board.

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Confined Space video Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbfWE7D9RZk